A New Political Landscape: Surprises from India’s 2024 General Election

A New Political Landscape: Surprises from India’s 2024 General Election

With all 640 million votes counted following a six-week-long election, India has concluded the world’s – and history’s – largest democratic exercise, revealing some significant surprises.

BJP’s Performance and Alliance Dynamics

The governing Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, secured 240 seats in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India’s Parliament, which has a total of 543 seats. Falling short of the 272-mark needed for a majority, the BJP, together with its allies, achieved a majority with 283 seats. The opposition INDIA alliance, spearheaded by the Indian National Congress party, won 223 seats.

This outcome contrasts sharply with the 2019 election results, where the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won 353 seats, with the BJP alone capturing 303 seats. The 2024 election results highlight significant shifts in India’s political landscape.

Key Surprises and Political Tremors

Uttar Pradesh: A Tight Varanasi Race and the Rise of SP

Uttar Pradesh (UP), governed by the BJP since 2017, has a substantial influence on national politics, holding 80 parliamentary constituencies and being India’s most populous state with over 240 million residents. Both Modi and Congress leader Rahul Gandhi contested elections from different constituencies in this pivotal state.

In the 2019 elections, the NDA won 64 seats from UP, with the BJP securing 62, the Congress winning one, the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) winning ten, and the Samajwadi Party (SP) securing five.

However, the 2024 election results in UP presented a starkly different picture. The SP won 37 seats, and the Congress six, totaling 43 seats for the INDIA alliance. The BJP managed to win 33 seats, while its allies secured three.

One of the most stunning upsets was the BJP’s loss in the Faizabad constituency, home to the Ram temple in Ayodhya, a significant site for the BJP’s campaign. Modi had consecrated the temple in January, a symbol of the BJP’s long-standing agenda. The temple is built on the ruins of the Babri mosque, demolished by a Hindu mob in 1992.


The 2024 Indian general elections have demonstrated substantial political shifts, notably in Uttar Pradesh. These results indicate changing voter sentiments and a more competitive political environment. The BJP, despite not securing an outright majority, remains a formidable force with its allies. The INDIA alliance’s performance signals a revived and strengthened opposition. This election cycle has undoubtedly reshaped India’s political landscape, setting the stage for the future.


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