Exploring the Evolution of Indian Philosophy: From Vedas to Osho

Indian philosophy has a rich and diversified history that dates back thousands of years to the ancient Vedic period. From the Vedas to Osho, prominent philosophers have moulded Indian philosophy, each with their own distinct ideas and contributions.


The Vedas are an old collection of literature dating back to the second millennium BCE. These are regarded Hinduism’s oldest and most sacred books, and they offer a wealth of wisdom and information about ancient India’s religion, philosophy, and culture. The Vedas are divided into four sections: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda, and the Atharvaveda.

The oldest and most significant of the Vedas, the Rigveda, comprises hymns and pleas to numerous deities, including Agni, Varuna, and Indra. The Yajurveda includes directions for carrying out Vedic rites and sacrifices, whereas the Samaveda contains melodies and chants that are employed in these ceremonies. The Atharvaveda contains healing and protective songs, charms, and incantations.

The Upanishads:

The Upanishads are a group of philosophical literature written between 800 and 500 BCE. They are regarded as the pinnacle of Vedic philosophy and serve as the foundation of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The Upanishads offer a wide range of teachings on issues such as the nature of the self, reality, and the route to freedom.

The Bhagavad Gita, a debate between the warrior prince Arjuna and his charioteer Krishna, is one of the most renowned Upanishads. The Bhagavad Gita is regarded as one of Hinduism’s most fundamental scriptures, containing lessons on the nature of dharma, karma, and the route to enlightenment.

The Samkhya Philosophy:

Samkhya philosophy is one of the six traditional schools of Hindu philosophy and is thought to have been created in the sixth century BCE by the sage Kapila. Samkhya philosophy is founded on the concept of two fundamental realities: Purusha, or pure awareness, and Prakriti, or nature. The material universe, according to Samkhya philosophy, is a manifestation of Prakriti, whereas Purusha is the unchanging and everlasting awareness that underpins all reality.

The Yoga Philosophy:

Yoga philosophy is another of the six traditional schools of Hindu philosophy and is thought to have been created in the 2nd century BCE by the sage Patanjali. The Yoga philosophy is founded on the belief that the objective of human life is to achieve emancipation from the cycle of birth and death, which may be accomplished via yoga practise.

Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras are the most prominent text of Yoga philosophy, containing teachings on the nature of yoga, the route to enlightenment, and the numerous yoga practises and methods.

The Vedanta Philosophy:

The Vedanta philosophy, which is founded on the teachings of the Upanishads, is another of the six traditional schools of Hindu philosophy. The ultimate truth, according to Vedanta philosophy, is Brahman, an unchanging and everlasting awareness that underpins all existence.

Advaita Vedanta is the most important school of Vedanta philosophy, founded by Adi Shankara, and asserts that the real essence of the self is equal to Brahman. Ignorance and the false identification of the self with the body and mind, according to Advaita Vedanta, are the causes of suffering, and liberation can be obtained by realising one’s true nature.

The Bhakti Movement:

The Bhakti Movement was a devotional movement that began during the 8th century CE in mediaeval India. It stressed devotion, love, and surrender in the worship of a personal deity or goddess. The Bhakti Movement tried to democratise religion by spreading the notion of universal love and brotherhood in reaction to Hinduism’s rigid caste structure, which had grown corrupt and repressive.

Mirabai, Kabir, and Tukaram are among the most prominent Bhakti saints, who penned poetry and songs on their devotion to their chosen deity. The Bhakti Movement had a significant influence on Indian culture and society because it advocated social equality and challenged the reigning Brahminical orthodoxy.

The Tantra Philosophy:

Tantra philosophy is a distinct and varied group of teachings that arose in mediaeval India about the fifth century CE. Tantra is frequently connected with the use of sexual rites and practises, although this is a mistake. Tantra is a vast system of spiritual and intellectual teachings that encompasses meditation, yoga, and a variety of other activities.

Tantra philosophy stresses the importance of the body and senses in achieving spiritual awareness. It teaches that the ultimate reality is present in all things and is not distinct from the material world. Tantra also highlights the guru’s (or spiritual teacher’s) role in helping the learner on the path to enlightenment.

The Neo-Vedanta Philosophy:

The Neo-Vedanta ideology arose in the late nineteenth century as a reaction to colonial and modernist influences that were altering Indian culture. Neo-Vedanta attempted to reinterpret Vedanta’s classical teachings in a way that was applicable to current times.

Swami Vivekananda, the most prominent Neo-Vedanta supporter, espoused the notion of a global religion founded on Vedantic ideas. Vivekananda thought that Vedanta had the ability to overcome the East-West divide and provide the groundwork for a new, more harmonious global order.


Osho, also known as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, was a controversial spiritual leader who appeared in the 1970s. Osho’s teachings were a synthesis of other spiritual traditions, such as Tantra, Yoga, and Zen, and he stressed the significance of meditation and awareness.

Osho’s teachings questioned established moral concepts and urged his disciples to embrace their appetites and passions. This prompted charges of hedonism and even cult-like conduct, but Osho’s teachings also drew a wide following of individuals looking for a new way of living.


Indian philosophy has a long and varied history, shaped by a number of prominent philosophers and groups. Indian philosophy, from the Vedas to Osho, has highlighted the significance of spiritual realisation, the nature of reality, and the road to freedom. Indian philosophy has been moulded by the distinct cultural and socioeconomic circumstances in which it has arisen, and it continues to change and adapt to modern-day concerns.

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